Indian Journal of Critical Care Case Report

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VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 2 ( March-April, 2024 ) > List of Articles


Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019

Smita Sharma, Gyanendra Agrawal, Esha Kaul, Diksha D Yadav

Keywords : Coronavirus disease 2019, Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Macrophage activation syndrome

Citation Information : Sharma S, Agrawal G, Kaul E, Yadav DD. Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019. 2024; 3 (2):46-48.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11006-0100

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 15-03-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an acute and rapidly progressive systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by cytopenia, hyperferritinemia, multiorgan involvement, and hemophagocytosis. The other names for HLH are hemophagocytic syndrome and macrophage activation syndrome. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with cytokine storm and secondary HLH; both are a spectrum of dysregulated immune responses requiring immunomodulatory drugs. Early diagnosis and treatment are a must, as the mortality rate of HLH is 40%. Severe COVID-19 patients should be screened for hyperinflammation using standard laboratory tests and H-score to rule out secondary HLH. Highlight: This case report highlights the importance of a high index of suspicion of secondary HLH in clinician's minds, which can lead to early diagnosis, prompt treatment, and a good prognosis.

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